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 GLP-1 agonists promote weight loss, as well as in improving cholesterol levels, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, cardio–metabolic, and renal protection.   Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels.   GLP-1 has several effects on various organ systems, among which the most relevant is the reduction of appetite and food intake, leading to long-term weight loss. GLP-1 secretion from the gut seems to be impaired in obese subjects, suggesting a role in the pathophysiology of obesity.   GLP-1 RAs are currently used in treating patients with T2D and consistently result in weight loss, in addition to lowering blood glucose levels. The combined central and peripheral actions of GLP-1 RA promote satiety, decrease hunger, and ultimately reduce food intake. While GLP-1 RA-induced deceleration of gastric emptying and occasional nausea may contribute to the weight-reducing effects, they appear to play a minor and temporary role [58]. The inhibition of food intake by GLP-1/RA-mediated GLP-1 has been attributed to both direct central actions, with GLP-1 receptors present in brain regions involved in food intake and energy balance, and indirect pathways via vagal afferents originating in the gut and portal circulation [59,60] (Figure 10). In rodents, intra-cerebrovascular injection of GLP-1 reduced food intake. However, in addition to the direct effects of GLP-1 on the CNS, the incretin more likely exerts its actions on the brain through indirect pathways, that is, through vagal afferents originating in the gut and portal circulation [59,60].

Popoviciu, M. S., Păduraru, L., Yahya, G., Metwally, K., & Cavalu, S. (2023). Emerging Role of GLP-1 Agonists in Obesity: A Comprehensive Review of Randomised Controlled Trials. International journal of molecular sciences, 24(13), 10449.

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